History of Western Civilization I
"I'm Ancient History"
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES:
Western Civilization I and II are the quintessential general education classes, required or optional components of the general education programs at almost every university in the country. In South Dakota in particular, Western Civilizations I and II are among the most useful courses for helping students meet the expectations the Board of Regents has established for general education.
This course should be especially helpful to you in meeting SD Board of Regents General Education Goal 4 (understanding the human community through the humanities), and BOR Goal 7 (cultural diversity). Since history is both a humanities and a social sciences discipline, it also will help you address Goal 3 (understanding the human community through the social sciences).
As will almost all the courses you will take at NSU, this course also will help you be better prepared to demonstrate your achievement of BOR Goals 1 and 2 (goals which have to do with reading, writing, listening, and speaking). This course will address BOR Goals 3, 4, and 7 as follows:
BOR GOAL #3: Students will understand the structures and possibilities of the human community through study of the social sciences.
To meet this goal, students in this will do each of the following:
1. Indentify and apply the basic concepts, terminology and theories of the social sciences in different spatial, temporal, cultural and/or institutional context.
2. Apply social science concepts and theories to contemporary issues
3. Identify and explain the social or aesthetic values of different cultures.
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the origin and evolution of human institutions
5. Demonstrate an understanding of the allocation of human or natural resources within societies
6. Demonstrate an understanding of diverse philosophical, ethical, and religious views
To achieve SL Outcome 1, students will prepare for exams asking them to use the historical method in explaining the
significance of key historical figures and events of the ancient, medieval and early modern periods.
To achieve SL Outcome 2, students will participate in discussions asking
them to find contemporary parallels to historical
To achive SL Outcome 3, students will prepare for exams asking them to evaluate various artistic and literary creations from each of the societies and time periods studied in this class. They will evaluate and compare the ideas of many of the most important ancient, medieval, and early modern thinkers, discussing figures ranging from Plato and Aristotle to Anselm and Aquinas to Machiavelli and Pico Della Mirandola. They will also be asked to read and evaluate selections from representative works and to the ideas in this works to specific historical institutions and events.
To achieve SL Outcome 4, students will prepare for exams asking them to discuss the development of the first great civilizations in the Ancient Near East and in Europe and to trace the development of human institutions thourhg the ancient, medieval, and early modern periods.
To achieve SL Outcome 5, students will prepare for exams asking them to evaluate the interactions among economic, political, and social changes associated with rise and fall of ancient, medieval, and early modern civilizations.
To achieve SL Outcome 6, students will prepare for exams and participate in discussions asking them to evaluate the political, philosophical, and religious ideas of figures ranging from Plato and Aristotle to Jesus and Muhammad, to Machiavelli and Savanarola. They will also be asked to tie the ideas of these thinkers to specific historical institutions and events. They will explore the beginnings of many of the world's great religions and the origin and early development of philosophy, history, and the sciences.
BOR GOAL #4: Students will understand and appreciate the human experience through arts and humanities.
To meet this goal, students in this will do each of the following:
1. Students will demonstrate the knowledge of the diversity of values, beliefs, and ideas embodied in the human experienceTo achieve SL Outcome 1, students will prepare for exams and participate in discussions asking them to evaluate the political, philosophical, and religious ideas of figures ranging from Plato and Aristotle to Jesus and Muhammad, to Machiavelli and Savanarola. They will also be asked to tie the ideas of these thinkers to specific historical institutions and events. They will explore the beginnings of many of the world's great religions and the origin and early development of philosophy, history, and the sciences.
2. Identify and explain the basic concepts of history
3. Identify and explain the contributions of other cultures from the perspective of history
4. Demonstrate creative and aesthetic understanding
5. Explain and interpret fromal and stylistic elements of the literary and fine arts
To achieve SL Outcome 2, students will prepare for exams asking them
to use the historical method in explaining the
significance of key historical figures and events of the ancient, medieval and early modern periods.
To achieve SL Outcome 3, students will prepare for exams asking them to discuss the rise, development, and fall of the first great civilizations in the Ancient Near East and in Europe and the further development of Western civilization during the medieval and early modern periods. They will examine the different ways in which different ancient, medieval, and early modern civilizations provided ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment to their members. They will look at the contributions each of these societies made to the literature, to the arts, to law, to technology, and to to the sciences.
To achieve SL Outcomes 4 and 5, students will prepare for exams asking them to evaluate various artistic and literary creations from each of the societies and time periods studied in this class. They will evaluate and compare the ideas of many of the most important ancient, medieval, and early modern thinkers, discussing figures ranging from Plato and Aristotle to Anselm and Aquinas to Machiavelli and Pico Della Mirandola. They will also be asked to read and evaluate selections from representative works and to the ideas in this works to specific historical institutions and events.
BOR GOAL #7: Students will understand and be sensitive to cultural diversity so that they are prepared to live and work in an international and multicultural environment.
To meet this goal, students in this class will do each of the following:
1. Identify and analyze
contemporary global issues including how multiple perspectives impact such
2. Demonstrate a basic understanding of the concept of globalization.
To achieve SL Outcome 1, students will prepare for exams asking them to evaluate the ancient, medieval, and early modern ideas and values that lie at the core of the various civilizations of today. They will explore the contrasting values of various peoples of the ancient, mediveal, and ealry modern world.
To achieve SL Outcome 2, students will prepare for exams asking them to compare and contrast the social and aesthetic values of various ancient, medieval, and modern societies. Students will be asked to evaluate both the benefits and potential dangers inherent in the meeting of different cultures.
Assessment Tools: Your achievement of these goals and outcomes will be measured formally by course-embedded tests and quizzes and informally through class discussions.
The Epic of Gilgamesh (Nancy Sanders, trans.)
Greek Drama (Moses Hadas, ed.)
The Last Days of Socrates (Plato)
The Prince (Machiavelli)
The Bible (any version)
WORLD CIVILIZATIONS SURVEY:
The main text for this class, Chodorow's Mainstream of Civilization, will give you a different perspective on the figures and events discussed in class and serve as an excellent supplement to your lecture notes as you prepare for your midterm and final exams. You will probably find the maps, charts, and time lines in the Chodorow book particularly helpful. You do not need to bring the Chodorow book to class, and it doesn't really matter whether you do the Chodorow readings before or after the associated lectures.
The other readings (The Epic of Gilgamesh, etc.) must be done before class on the day assigned. We will be discussing these works in class, and you will be lost and confused if you haven't done the reading. In addition, there are often surprise quizzes on these readings.
SCHEDULE OF CLASSES AND READINGS:
1/12 Old Kingdom Egypt (Mainstream, p. 15-23)
1/14 Middle Kingdom Egypt
1/16 New Kingdom Egypt
1/19 *** Martin Luther King Day: No Class ***
1/21 Sumer (Mainstream, p. 10-14)
1/23 Babylon, Assyria, and the Chaldaeans (Mainstream, p. 26-30)
1/26 Mesopotamian Art and Literature (The Epic of Gilgamesh)
1/28 The Hebrews: An Important People? (Mainstream, p. 25-26)
1/30 The Hebrews (Gen. 1-3; Deut. 5-6; Isaiah 1, 53; any Psalm)
2/2 The Hebrews (Daniel 1-7, 12)
2/4 Ancient India (Mainstream, p. 145-155)
2/6 Ancient India
2/9 Ancient China (Mainstream, p. 155-166)
2/11 ******** MIDTERM I *********
2/13 Ancient Greece I (Mainstream, Ch. 2)
2/16 *** President's Day: No Class ***
2/18 Ancient Greece II
2/20 Greek Drama I (Antigone)
2/23 Greek Drama II (The Trojan Women)
2/25 Philosophy (The Last Days of Socrates: The Apology)
2/27 Philosophy (The Last Days of Socrates: Euthyphro)
3/1 The Roman Republic (Mainstream, Ch. 3)
3/3 The Roman Revolution
3/5 Imperial Rome (Mainstream, Ch. 4)
3/6-3/14 *** Spring Break: No Class ***
3/15 Christianity in the Roman Empire
3/17 Christianity in the Roman Empire (The Gospel of Matthew)
3/19 Christianity in the Roman Empire (The Gospel of John)
3/24 ******* MIDTERM II *********
3/26 Byzantium (Mainstream, Ch. 7)
3/29 Islam (Mainstream, Ch. 8)
3/31 Islam II
4/2 Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages (Mainstream, Ch. 9)
4/5 The High Middle Ages (Mainstream, Ch. 14)
4/7 The High Middle Ages
4/9 *** Good Friday: No Class ***
4/12 *** Monday After Easter: No class ***
4/14 The Late Middle Ages
4/16 The Renaissance (Mainstream, Ch. 16)
4/19 The Renaissance (The Prince)
4/21 The Renaissance
4/23 The Reformation (Mainstream, Ch. 17)
4/26 The Reformation
4/28 The Counter Reformation
5/30 The Exciting Conclusion to this Course!
Friday, May 9, 7:30-9:30
Your grade for this course will be based in large part on your midterm and final exams, each of which will count approximately 20% when I determine your final grade. In addition, I will take into account attendance, participation, and quiz scores.
Midterms--8 ID's, 1 essay
Final--8 ID's, 1 essay
ID's will be selected from the terms put on the board at the beginning of each lecture. You will be asked, not only to identify the terms, but also to explain their historical significance. I am impressed when students can include plenty of detailed information, but I am even more impressed when students can show how the ID terms relate to important themes discussed in this class.
Essay questions will deal with major themes discussed in the lectures. Most often, the exam question will be a generalization I have made in class with the additional word, "comment."
A student who studies hard and does the required reading should have plenty to say in response to each of these questions. You will be given 50 minutes for each midterm and two hours for the final exam. Most students will need the full time to do a good job.
What is a good job? I tell students over and over again that a good essay consists of a series of good generalizations based on the exam question and backed up with specific support from the lectures and the readings. I am particularly impressed when students include in their essays references to primary source material.
In order to make sure students are keeping up with the readings, I will give 5-10 "surprise" quizzes. These quizzes will most often be short essays on the reading assigned for that day.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING FOR AND TAKING EXAMS:
Preparing for the exam:
1. Think! Do not just memorize facts.
2. Prepare the essay questions first.
3. Come up with a fairly detailed outline for each essay.
4. Think of good topic sentences for each paragraph of your essay. 5. Use the key words of the exam question in your topic sentences.
6. Choose good supporting evidence for your topic sentences.
7. Use the appropriate ID terms in your essays.
8. Learn the ID's in context. Do not use a "flash card" approach. 9. Do not wait until the last minute to study.
10. Do spend extra time studying the week of the exam.
11. Make full use of the review session.
12. Do not just memorize facts. Think!
Taking the exam:
1. Bring a blue book. Make sure there are no pages torn
2. Use pen.
3. Don't sit by anyone with whom you studied.
4. Plan on spending the full time writing your exam.
5. Do the ID terms first.
6. If you run out of time on the essay, include an outline of the material you would have covered.
7. If you have extra time, go back and add extra info. on the ID terms.
PLEASE NOTE: Any student caught cheating in this class at any time (even on a two-point “sign your name” quiz) will receive a failing grade for the course. Cheating includes the use of any notes during midterm or final exams. Please place no marks of any kind on or in your blue book before I give the signal to begin taking the exams.
It is not cheating to study with another student, to share notes,
or to prepare essays or ID's together. However, if you do study with another
students, be sure you do not sit next to each other during the exam.
GUIDE TO PRIMARY SOURCE READINGS AND
SAMPLE SURPRISE QUIZ QUESTIONS
I have used many of these questions way too many times in previous classes. I will try to come up with some new questions this semester. Sometimes, I will ask you to supply what you consider to be good questions for the assigned reading. If you've done the reading, you should find these quizzes fairly easy.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Please read pp. 61-119 in the Nancy Sanders translation of The Epic of Gilgamesh. You do not need to read the introductory material (p. 7-60).
Gilgamesh, King of the Sumerian city of Uruk (Erech), was a favorite subject of Mesopotamian art and literature for over a thousand years. The Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians--and maybe even the Egyptians--all told Gilgamesh stories. The version you are going to read is based on the tablets discovered by Layard in the library of the 7th century B.C. Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal.
Quiz question: Would The Epic of Gilgamesh make a good movie? Why, or why not?
In evaluating your quiz, I will be looking primarily for evidence that you have read the epic. Be sure to include references to specific characters and specific events described in the poem. I will also be looking at your ability to organize your information. Do not put all your information into one long paragraph. Good topic sentences will help your grade.
Readings from the Old Testament
Please read Genesis 1-3 and Deuteronomy 5-6, Isaiah 1, Isaiah 53, and any one of the Psalms.
Quiz question: What did you find particularly interesting in the selections from the Bible? What did you find hard to understand? What would you particularly like to see discussed in class?
Please read Daniel 1-7 and Daniel 12. (Note: In Protestant Bibles, chapter 12 is the last chapter of Daniel. In Catholic Bibles, there is some additional material.)
Most societies look not only to the beginning of the universe to try to explain the meaning of life, but to the end of time as well. We call speculations on the end of time and the end of the world "eschatology." The Hebrew view of eschatology, like the Hebrew view of creation, is particularly important, a fundamental part of the Jewish, Christian, and Moslem faiths.
The book of Daniel gives a clearer account of Hebrew eschatology than any other Old Testament book. But the book of Daniel is not just an attempt to satisfy the curiosity of the Hebrews about what might happen in the future. Instead, the author is attempting to deal with the problem of evil. Why do the righteous suffer? Why do the wicked prosper? Is God just? If he is just, is he powerless to help the righteous? Why be righteous if you're only going to suffer for it? Daniel confronts such questions head on.
Quiz question: How would the book of Daniel have helped to provide ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment to the Hebrew people?
You will find Antigone on pp. 80-110 in Moses Hadas’ Greek Drama.
Quiz question: If you were to produce the play Antigone, who would you choose for the leading roles? Why? (Note: if you're not a big fan of movie or television actors, you can "cast" the play with friends or relatives.)
You will find The Trojan Women on pp. 256-287 of Moses Hadas’ Greek Drama.
Quiz question: Imagine you have just watched the first performance of The Trojan Women. Write a letter to a friend in another city telling them about the play and describing your reaction to it.
You will find The Apology on pp. 21-42 of The Trial and Socrates.
Quiz question: Socrates has been called one of the greatest teachers who has ever lived. Based on what you read in The Apology, suggest some reasons people would have been particularly attracted to him as a teacher. What was particularly attractive about his teaching?
The Gospel of Matthew
Please read as much as you can of the Gospel of Matthew. Be sure to read chapters 3-8.
Quiz question: Jesus has been called one of the greatest teachers who ever lived. Based on what you read in the Gospel of Matthew, suggest some reasons people in the first century might have been particularly attracted to him as a teacher. What was particularly impressive about his teaching?
The Gospel of John
Please read as much as you can of the Gospel of John. Be sure to read chapters 1-4 and 19-21.
Quiz question: If a student had really read the Gospel of John, what kind of evidence could they produce on a quiz such as this?
Please read as much as you can of Machiavelli's The Prince. We will be dealing primarily with chapters 15-19 (pp. 84-104 in the Mentor edition), so if you're pressed for time, concentrate on these pages.
Quiz question: Summarize Machiavelli's advice to rulers. Do you think a ruler who followed Machiavelli's advice would be successful? Why, or why not?
MIDTERM I--PRELIMINARY STUDY GUIDE
KEMET, NOMES, PER-O, UNAS, MAXIMS OF PTAH HOTEP, PLEA OF THE ELOQUENT PEASANT, OSIRUS, HYKSOS, BOOK OF THE DEAD
SUMER, CUNEIFORM, ENLIL, ZIGGURAT, BABYLONIANS, HAMMURABI, CODE OF HAMMURABI, MARDUK, ISHTAR, GILGAMESH, ASSYRIANS, CHALDAEANS, NEBUCHADNEZZAR, ASTRAL RELIGION
PATRIARCHS, ABRAHAM, MOSES, JUDGES, UNITED MONARCHY, SOLOMON
TORAH, GENESIS, DEUTERONOMY, ISAIAH, PSALMS, DANIEL, MENE MENE TEKEL UPHARISN
HINDUISM, BRAHMA, SHIVA, VISHNU, KRISHNA, CASTE SYSTEM, SATI, BUDDHA, FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, EIGHT-FOLD PATH, NIRVANA, CONFUCIANISM, TAOISM
POTENTIAL ESSAYS QUESTIONS:
A. In order to survive, a society must provide physical security, ethical guidance, and emotional fulfillment for its members. Egyptian society was able to survive for well over two thousand years because, for the most part, it did an excellent job providing these three things. Comment.
B. In order to survive, a society must provide physical security, ethical guidance, and emotional fulfillment for its members. Mesopotamian society was able to survive for well over two thousand years because, for the most part, it did an excellent job providing these three things. Comment.
C. The figures and events of Hebrew history would at first seem relatively insignificant, but these figures and events have had a tremendous impact on subsequent civilization. Comment.
D. The books of the "Tenach" (what Christians call the Old Testament) have had a tremendous influence on subsequent civilization. Comment.
E. In some ways, India and China mark "roads not taken" by Western
MIDTERM II--PRELIMINARY STUDY GUIDE
HOMER, SAPPHO, HERODOTUS, ACROPOLIS, OLYMPICS, ANTIGONE, TROJAN WOMEN
POLIS, SPARTA, ATHENS, PERSIAN WAR, PELOPONNESIAN WAR, PHILIP OF MACEDON, ALEXANDER THE GREAT
THALES, DEMOCRITUS, HERACLITUS, PARMENDIDES, SOCRATES, PLATO, ARISTOTLE, DIOGENES, STOICISM, EPICUREANISM
VIRTUS, STRUGGLE OF ORDERS, PUNIC WARS, GRACCHI BROTHERS, MARIUS, SULLA, JULIUS CAESAR
AUGUSTUS, TIBERIUS, CALIGULA, CLAUDIUS, NERO
PAGANISM, ZEUS, NERO, PLINY, GALERIUS, CONSTANTINE, GOSPEL, SERMON ON THE MOUNT, GOSPEL OF JOHN, PETER, AGAPE
POTENTIAL ESSAY QUESTIONS:
A. The Greeks made more important contributions to subsequent civilization than any other ancient people Comment.
B. The Greeks became a great people despite the fact that they were constantly at war...or, maybe, because of the fact that they were constantly at war. Comment.
C. Philosophy is probably the most important contribution of the Greeks to subsequent civilization. Comment.
D. The growth of Rome from a small city-state into a great empire during the early days of the Roman Republic is somewhat surprising. Even more surprising is Rome's continued success during the period of the Roman Revolution. Comment.
E. Augustus' success in rebuilding Rome is somewhat surprising. Even more surprising is Rome's continued success during the period of his Julio-Claudian successors. Comment.
F. One of the greatest surprises in history is the eclipse of
Roman paganism and the triumph of Christianity. Comment.
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
CONSTANTINE, CONSTANTINOPLE, JUSTINIAN, THEODORA, BASIL THE BULGAR SLAYER, CHRISTOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES, ICONOCLASM
MUHAMMAD, KHADIJAH, MECCA, MEDINA, KORAN, FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM, SHAHADA, MOSQUE, HAJ, RAMADAN, JIHAD
GREGORY THE GREAT, BENEDICTINES, CHARLEMAGNE, FEUDALISM, CRUSADES, SONG OF ROLAND, LANCELOT, ROMANESQUE, GOTHIC, ANSELM, ABELARD, AQUINAS, ST. FRANCIS
BLACK DEATH, HUNDRED YEARS' WAR, JACQUERIE, BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY OF THE PAPACY, GREAT SCHISM
BOCCACCIO, PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, MACHIAVELLI, BOTTICELLI, DA VINCI, DONATELLO, RAPHAEL, MICHELANGELO, WYCLIF, HUSS, SAVANAROLA
LUTHER, ZWINGLI, CALVIN, JESUITS, ANABAPTISTS, BRETHREN OF THE COMMON LIFE, ERASMUS, MORE, ANGLICANS
POTENTIAL ESSAY QUESTIONS:
A. Christianity gave the Roman Empire a new lease on life. Particularly in the east, the Christianized Roman Empire, what we usually call the Byzantine Empire, remained successful for centuries. However, the Byzantine Empire was not quite as Christian as it might have been, nor was Christianity always as helpful as it might have been. Comment.
B. Muhammad would at first seem an insignificant historical figure, but he turned the Arabs into a force to be reckoned with and created one of the most compelling and attractive of all religions, Islam. Comment.
C. European society in the Early and High Middle Ages did an excellent job providing physical security, ethical guidance, and emotional fulfillment for its members. Comment.
D. In the 14th century, a series of calamities shook the medieval world to its foundations. Discuss these disasters and note the effect each had on political, economic, and/or social conditions in Europe.
E. The Renaissance was a period of tremendous achievement in all sorts of areas: in the arts, in literature, and, to a certain extent, in spiritual life as well. Comment.
F. In 16th century Europe, reformers of various types tried to
correct the many abuses they saw in their society, trying especially to
reform the church. Unfortunately, their attempts at reform sometimes
only increased the turmoil of this century. The events of the Reformation
period have important lessons for anyone who wants change society—suggesting
that there is a right way and a wrong way to work for societal change.
1. If a man entered the orchard of another man and was seized there for stealing, he shall pay 10 shekels of silver.
2. If adjacent to the house of a man the bare ground of another man has been neglected and the owner of the house has said to the owner of the bare ground, "Because your ground has been neglected someone may break into my house; strengthen your house, and this agreement has been confirmed by him, the owner of the bare ground shall restore to the owner of the house any of his property that is lost.
3. If a man rented an ox and damaged its eye, he shall pay one-half of its price.
4. If a slave girl or slave of a man has fled into the heart of the city and it has been confirmed that he or she dwelt in the house of another man for one month, he shall give slave for slave. If he has no slave, he shall pay 15 shekels of silver.
5. If a man married a wife and she bore him children and those children are living, and a slave also bore children for her master but the father granted freedom to the slave and her children, the children of the slave shall not divide the estate with the children of their former master.
6. If his first wife dies and after her death he takes his slave as a wife, the children of his first wife are his heirs.
7. If a man's wife has not borne him children but a harlot from the public square has borne him children, he shall provide grain, oil, and clothing for that harlot; the children which the harlot has borne him shall be his heirs, and as long as his wife lives the harlot shall not live in the house with his wife.
8. If a man turned his face away from his first wife, but she
has not gone out of the house, his wife whom he married as his favorite
is a second wife; he shall continue to support his first wife.
1. Into an open mouth, a fly enters.
2. The traveler from distant places is a perennial liar.
3. Friendship lasts a day; kinship lasts forever.
4. A sweet word is everybody's friend.
5. A loving heart builds the home; a hating heart destroys the home.
6. A scribe whose hand moves as fast as his mouth, that's a scribe for you!
7. A singer whose voice is not sweet is a poor singer indeed.
8. In a city without dogs, the fox is the overseer.
9. Don't pick it now; later it will bear fruit.
10. Who has much silver may be happy; who has much grain may be glad; but he who has nothing can sleep.
Code of Hammurabi
1. If a man has accused a man and cast against him an accusation of murder and has not proved it against him, his accuser shall be put to death.
2. If a man has opened his ditch for irrigation and has been slack and has consequently caused the water to carry away his neighbor's field, he shall pay corn corresponding to the crop of the field adjoining it.
3. If a man strikes the daughter of a freeman and causes her to cast that which is within her womb, he shall pay ten shekels of silver for that which is within her womb. If that woman dies as a result, they shall put his daughter to death.
4. If a surgeon has made a major incision in a freeman with a bronze instrument and saved the man's life, or opened an eye-infection with a bronze instrument and so saved the man's eye, he shall take ten shekels of silver. If a surgeon has made a major incision in a freeman with a bronze instrument and caused the man to die, or opened an eye-infection with a bronze instrument and thereby destroyed the man's eye, they shall cut off his hand.
5. If a builder has built a house for a man and has not made his work sound, so that the house he has made falls down and causes the death of the owner of the house, that builder shall be put to death. If it causes the death of the son of the owner of the house, they shall kill the son of that builder.
1. If a man has caught a man with his wife, and a charge is brought and proved against him, they shall kill both of them; there is no guilt for this. If he has caught him and brought him either before the king or before the judges, and a charge is brought and proved against him, if the husband of the woman puts his wife to death, then he may put the man to death; if he cuts off the nose of his wife, he shall make the man a eunuch and the whole of his face shall be mutilated; or if he lets his wife go free, they shall set the man free.
2. If a woman has damaged a man's testicle in a quarrel, they shall cut off one of her fingers.... if she has damaged the second testicle in the quarrel, they shall tear out both her....
3. Married women must be veiled, as must a concubine accompanying her mistress. But a harlot shall not be veiled; her head must be uncovered, and (if not) she shall be beaten fifty stripes with rods and pitch poured over her head.
4. If a woman by her own deed has cast that which is within her womb, and a charge has been brought and proved against her, they shall impale her and bury her not. If she dies from casting that which is within her womb, they shall impale her and not bury her.
5. Leaving aside the penalties for a man's wife which are inscribed on the tablet, a man may flog his wife, he may pluck her hair, he may strike and damage her ears. There is no guilt involved in this.
6. If a man divorces his wife, if it is his will he may give her something; if it is not his will, he shall not give her anything and she shall go out in her emptiness.
7. If a man has lain with his male friend and a charge is brought and proved against him, the same thing shall be done to him and he shall be made a eunuch.
The Eight-fold Path (Buddhist)
1. Right knowledge: know the four noble truths
2. Right purpose
3. Right speech
4. Right behavior
5. Right livelihood
6. Right effort
7. Right awareness
8. Right meditation
Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous, and Lo! Virtue is not hard.
Good government obtains when those who are near are made happy, and when those who are far off are attracted.
The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort in not fit to be deemed a scholar.
The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions.
What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.
There are three things the superior man guards against. In youth, lust. When he is strong, quarrelsomeness. When he is old, covetousness.
Without recognizing the ordinances of heaven, it is impossible to become a superior man.
If a gentleman is frivolous, he will lose the respect of his inferiors and lack firm ground upon which to build up his education. First and foremost he must learn to be faithful to his superiors, to keep promises...and if he finds he has made a mistake, then he must not be afraid of admitting the fact and amending his ways.
A gentleman can see a question from all sides without bias. The small man is biased and can see a question only from one side.
I do not see what use a man can be put to, whose word cannot be trusted. How can a wagon be made to go if it has no yoke-bar or a carriage, if it has no collar-bar?
If you raise up the straight and set them on top of the crooked, the commoners will support you. But if you raise the crooked and set them on top of the straight, the commoners will not support you.
In vain I have looked for a single man capable of seeing his own faults and binging the charge home against himself.
The Tao that can be told is not the Tao; the name that can be named is not the eternal name. The nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth; the Named is the mother of all things. Therefore let there always be nonbeing, so we may see there subtlety, and let there always be being, so we may see there outcome. The two are the same, but after they are produced they have different names. They both may be called deep and profound. Deeper and more profound, the doer of all subtleties.
The sage has no fixed opinions,
The opinions of ordinary people become his own.
I am good to people who are good;
I am also good to those who are not good:
That is the goodness of virtue.
I believe honest people;
I also believe the dishonest:
This is the trust of virtue.
Abandon learning and there will be no sorrow.