LOUIS XIV, LOUIS XV, FREDERICK WILLIAM I, FREDERICK THE GREAT, MARIA THERESA, JOSEPH II, PETER THE GREAT, CATHERINE THE GREAT
(PHILOSOPHES), DIDEROT, CONDORCET, ROUSSEAU, (CONFESSIONS), THE
SOCIAL CONTRACT, CIVIL LIBERTY, DEISM, (LEIBNITZ), OPTIMISM,
VOLTAIRE, CANDIDE, KANT, CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
(LOUIS XVI), NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, (DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN), THE CONVENTION, ROBESPIERRE, COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY, REIGN OF TERROR, THE DIRECTORY, NAPOLEON
CONGRESS OF VIENNA, ALEXANDER I, (HOLY ALLIANCE), LIBERALISM,
LAISSEZ-FAIRE, NATIONALISM, CRIMEAN WAR, REVOLUTION OF 1830,
LOUIS PHILIPPE, REVOLUTION OF 1848, LOUIS NAPOLEON, CAVOUR,
GARIBALDI, BISMARCK, FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR, (VICTORIA)
WHITE MAN'S BURDEN, LEOPOLD II, BERLIN CONFERENCE, (HINDUISM),
(CASTE SYSTEM), (THUGS), (KALI), (SATI), EAST INDIA COMPANY,
(OCEAN DEVILS), OPIUM WAR, TAIPING REBELLION
1. While in some ways the 18th century was an age of enlightenment, it was not a very enlightened age. The mixture of enlightenment and folly is particularly evident when one looks at the European monarchs of this century. Comment.
2. The great thinkers of the 18th century turned to reason for answers to mankind's problems. They believed that reason would end poverty and injustice. They believed that reason would help them create the ideal social and political system. They even believed that reason would provide the ultimate answers in religion. One might even say that they carried their faith in reason to an irrational extreme. Comment.
3. During each stage of the French Revolution, the French tried to make wonderful improvements in their form of government, but, in many cases, these improvements turned out not to be so wonderful after all. Comment.
4. The 19th century in some ways merits the name "The Age of Progress." Interestingly enough, this progress came through an a mixture of conservative and liberal ideas. Comment.
(5. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Europeans were convinced they
had a duty to share their superior ways of doing things with the
rest of the world, a feeling that came to be called the "White
Man's Burden." They did end up making major changes, but
European attempts to change the world typically did turn out to be
a burden--both for the Europeans and for the peoples they thought
they were helping. Comment.)
Ancient Art's Guide to the
Policies and Advice for Marmorstein Classes